Realism - Reality exists independently of observers. In ethics, moral realism takes the view that there are objective moral values. Representative realism claims that humans cannot perceive the external world directly.
Authoritarianism - Submission to authority and opposed to individualism and democracy. An authoritarian government is one in which political power is concentrated in a leader who possess exclusive, unaccountable, and arbitrary power.
Utilitarianism - Moral worth of an action is determined solely by its usefulness in maximizing utility as summed among all sentient beings. Humans should act in order to achieve the greatest happiness for the greatest number of people.
Positivism - The only authentic knowledge is that which is based on sense, experience, and positive verification. Scientific method is the best approach to uncovering the processes by which both physical and human events occur.
Deism - Reason and observation of the natural world without the need for organized religion, can determine that a supreme being created the universe. This deity does not intervene in human affairs or suspend the natural laws of the universe.
Rationalism - The only way to know the truth is through reason because the senses are inadequate and may even be misleading. Starting from premises that cannot coherently be denied, then attempting by logical steps to deduce every possible object of knowledge.
Dualism - Mind and matter are fundamentally distinct kinds of substances. Human beings have both of them, mind or soul and body. Moral dualism is the belief of the great complement or conflict between good and evil.